How Do I Become a Mechanical Engineer?

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Analyzing problems, developing and testing prototypes, and using computer-aided design are at the heart of a mechanical engineer’s responsibilities. These skilled professionals know the ins-and-outs of different machinery such as refrigeration equipment, air-conditioning systems, internal combustion engines, and gas turbines. They also are involved in the design of elevators, escalators, and virtually all types of machinery.

A bachelor’s degree in mechanical engineering is typically required to work in the field, according to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS 2021). Still, related subfields of engineering (e.g., aerospace engineering) have overlapping competencies and training. Other subfields of note are alternative energy and remanufacturing—the process of rebuilding products after they have worn out.

A graduate of a mechanical engineering school can also seek a Professional Engineering (PE) license after they have gained at least four years of experience in the field and passed two comprehensive examinations. The PE credential allows engineers to do consulting work or be employed in some governmental positions. In addition, a mechanical engineer can seek additional education through a master’s or doctoral-level program, which can lead to even greater opportunities in leadership and salary prospects.

This guide provides the step-by-step details of obtaining a mechanical engineering education and pursuing a career. It was formulated using information from the BLS and various professional associations detailing this career field’s typical education, licensing, pay, and job growth.

Step 1: Earn a Bachelor’s Degree in Mechanical Engineering (Four Years)

Mechanical engineers generally need at least a bachelor’s degree in mechanical engineering or mechanical engineering technology, according to the BLS. In addition, students are advised to seek out programs accredited by entities recognized by the U.S. Department of Education’s Council for Higher Education Accreditation (CHEA), including the gold standard in engineering: the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET).

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Mechanical engineering undergraduate programs are available at multiple degree levels and require different time commitments. For example, some programs allow students to earn an associate degree as they work toward a bachelor’s degree. There are varying formats for these degree programs, as well. These include traditional campus-based pathways, as well as programs that combine online and brick-and-mortar coursework. Additionally, there are even fully online programs in mechanical engineering at the bachelor’s level.

Admissions Requirements – Mechanical Engineering Bachelor’s Programs

Requirements for bachelor’s programs in mechanical engineering differ from school to school. A student’s high school grade point average (GPA) can be a crucial qualifier, but so can a student’s score on the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT). In addition, a high school transcript can help paint a picture of a student’s past interests and successes and may indicate their potential for future success. Some admissions materials that that may be required for mechanical engineering schools include:

  • Completed application and fee
  • Official high school transcripts with a competitive GPA in math and science courses (e.g., calculus, physics, geometry, chemistry)
  • SAT or American College Testing (ACT) scores
  • Letters of recommendation
  • An interview
  • An essay (500-600 words)

Typical Courses – Mechanical Engineering Bachelor’s Programs

Students in a bachelor’s program often complete many core science and math classes before taking upper-level mechanical engineering coursework in areas including:

  • Computer-Aided Drafting
  • Dynamics
  • Heat Transfer
  • Applied Fluid Mechanics
  • Statics
  • Thermodynamics
  • Behavior of Materials

Step 2: Earn a Master’s Degree in Mechanical Engineering (Two Years)

A master’s degree is not necessary to enter the mechanical engineering field. Still, as mentioned above, it can lead to more significant opportunities concerning breakthrough innovations, coveted research grants, or leadership positions. In fact, CareerOneStop (2021)—a site sponsored by the U.S. Department of Labor—reported that 22 percent of people working as mechanical engineers had a master’s degree, compared to 54 percent with a bachelor’s.

In their search for programs, students may find differing program pathways. A master’s degree, for example, typically takes at least two years of post-bachelor’s work to complete. Still, there are also combined bachelor’s and master’s degree programs, which may take five years of full-time, accelerated study. Additionally, other dual degree programs combine a master’s and an MBA. Finally, students can also consider online master’s degrees in mechanical engineering, particularly if they work full-time, live in rural areas, or have inflexible schedules.

Admissions Requirements – Mechanical Engineering Master’s Programs

As with bachelor’s degrees, enrollment requirements for master’s degrees in mechanical engineering vary, but generally, the admissions process for graduate-level education is more rigorous. Often students need to apply both to a university’s graduate school and to the engineering department itself. Students also should consider the options available in these programs. For example, they may be able to choose between a non-thesis or thesis program. Some of the typical admissions requirements for master’s-level mechanical engineering schools include:

  • Completed application(s) and processing fee(s)
  • A statement of purpose
  • Official transcripts with proof of specific course prerequisites
  • Letters of recommendation
  • GRE scores; Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) for ESL students
  • A bachelor’s degree in engineering or a related field
  • A minimum undergraduate GPA of 3.0

Typical Courses – Mechanical Engineering Master’s Programs

Many master’s degree programs require core coursework in four-to-six areas to help students build advanced knowledge. Examples of these core classes include:

  • Material Issues in Mechanical Design
  • Metals and Alloys
  • Advanced Composite Materials
  • Materials Engineering

After completing the initial core coursework, students may specialize in their classes or select electives that allow them to customize their degrees. Just keep in mind that degree requirements vary from school to school, and while some schools require students to complete a certain number of math courses for their program, others may instead focus on greater breadth across the curriculum. Available Master’s of Science in Mechanical Engineering (MSME) concentrations include:

  • Manufacturing and Materials Processing
  • Robotics and Controls
  • Solids/Mechanics of Materials
  • Thermofluids

Step 3: Build Mechanical Engineering Experience (One to Four Years)

Experience is integral to becoming a mechanical engineer. Not only can it be a starting point to formulate new ideas or concepts, but it also can be central to building the skills needed to work on more complex projects. Additionally, as mentioned in the introduction, having at least four years of professional experience is imperative for obtaining professional engineer (PE) licensing.

Experience can unlock opportunities in other ways, too. For example, mechanical engineers who know how to use the most up-to-date software tools—including those in computational design and simulation—or learn about three-dimensional printing can find their skills in demand.

To learn more about common courses and specializations offered in mechanical engineering programs, please see our guide to What is Mechanical Engineering & What are Its Branches?

Step 4: Seek Professional Engineer (PE) Licensure in Mechanical Engineering (Timeline Varies)

For mechanical engineers, PE licensure can indicate a high level of competence to clients, supervisors, and colleagues, although this credential is not always necessary to work in the field. Graduates of mechanical engineering schools should check with their state licensing board for more details on regional requirements. It’s essential to add that only licensed PEs can work as consulting engineers or private practitioners, and the PE designation is also necessary for employment in many governmental positions where the safety and welfare of the public is concerned. Here is a general overview of how to obtain PE licensure:

  • Take the Fundamentals of Engineering (FE) Exam. Students close to completing their undergraduate degree in mechanical engineering can take this exam. Reference materials and exam preparation are available online. The FE is offered in the mechanical engineering field, as well as six other fields of engineering.
  • Gain experience. Four years of experience under a qualified supervisor is the minimum requirement.
  • Take the Principles and Practice of Engineering (PE) exam. This eight-hour exam is the last step to obtaining licensure. The PE is available in three different mechanical engineering fields, including HVAC and refrigeration, machine design and materials, thermal and fluids systems, and other engineering disciplines.

Pass rates for the PE vary by subject area. For example, in the mechanical engineering testing fields mentioned above, they range from 67 to 70 percent for first-time takers, according to the National Council of Examiners for Engineering and Surveying.

Step 5: Seek Organizational Certification (timeline varies)

Numerous organizations are offering mechanical engineering certification. According to the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), certification can be a way to validate skills, increase marketability, garner respect, and build confidence and credibility. It can be a step that interests some professionals in the field. Below is a list of organizations that offer mechanical engineering certification:

  • ASME
  • Associated Air Balance Council
  • Association for Facilities Engineering
  • Association of Certified Fraud Examiners
  • Green Building Certification Institute
  • National Fire Prevention Association

Step 6: Consider a PhD (Four to Five Years)

Engineers seeking more education can look into PhD programs in mechanical engineering. These degrees may be of interest to engineers who enjoy research, want to make significant advancements in the field, or desire to teach future generations of engineers. Before starting a doctoral-level program, students often need to find a PhD advisor to guide and support them throughout their program. A PhD is a rigorous degree, and the expectations should be clear to candidates beforehand. Some components of a PhD program can include a/an:

  • On-campus residency
  • Completion of a dissertation
  • Teaching of undergraduate students
  • Oral examination

Career Outlook & Salary for Mechanical Engineers

Prospective mechanical engineers may be interested to learn the average annual salaries in the field. According to the BLS (May 2020), the average annual salary for the 293,960 mechanical engineers across the U.S. is $95,560, significantly higher than the average mean wage for all occupations nationally ($56,310). Mechanical engineers working in architectural, engineering, and related services earned the highest salaries, followed by scientific research and development services.

In more precise terms, here’s a breakdown of the annual wage percentiles of mechanical engineers in the U.S.:

United States (285,790 mechanical engineers employed): $95,560 average annual salary

  • 10th percentile: $58,410
  • 25th percentile: $71,880
  • 50th percentile (median): $90,160
  • 75th percentile: $114,380
  • 90th percentile: $141,060

Additionally, data from Payscale (November 2021), a site using self-reported salaries, indicates that mechanical engineers with project management skills, experience with plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, simulation software, or Fortran high-performance parallel programming language have the potential to make even more money.

Job Outlook for Mechanical Engineers

Job opportunities for mechanical engineers are expected to grow 7 percent from 2020 to 2030, according to the BLS (2021). This is slightly slower than the average growth projected across all occupations during that same decade (8 percent). However, it’s important to note that the growth rate can vary by sub-industry. For example, those working in nanotechnology, alternative energies, and remanufacturing may encounter more significant job opportunities.

Helpful Resources & Professional Organizations

Prospective mechanical engineers may want to consider membership in mechanical engineering associations. These groups may offer student memberships at a discount and provide opportunities in training and development, research, networking, and more. Here are the most prominent mechanical engineering professional associations and societies:

  • American Society for Engineering Education
  • American Society for Mechanical Engineers
  • Institution of Mechanical Engineers
  • National Society of Professional Engineers
  • Society of Mechanical Engineers
  • The International Academy for Production Engineering

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