Environmental engineers help identify and develop solutions to environmental problems to protect the population from harm or enhance people’s quality of life. For example, an environmental engineer may assist with a project to improve a recycling process in a nearby municipality or work with an organization to monitor levels of air pollution and take necessary action.
Those interested in environmental engineering might consider how to create sustainable buildings or how contaminated waste sites are cleaned up. To pursue this profession, prospective environmental engineers must complete a bachelor’s degree in environmental, civil, mechanical, or chemical engineering. In addition, because environmental engineers often work in teams to complete large-scale processes or projects, they must have the ability to work well with others.
In 2021, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS 2022) showed that 44,000 environmental engineers are employed in the United States. The majority of them were employed in engineering services (30 percent), management and consulting (18 percent); state government (15 percent); the federal government (7 percent); and local government (6 percent). Most environmental engineers are employed full-time and frequently work in tandem with city planners, lawyers, hazardous materials removal workers, and environmental scientists.
Read on to learn about this profession, including specializations, common employers, day-to-day tasks, and typical environmental engineer work environments.
According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), environmental engineers consider the earth’s natural resources while applying physical, biological, and chemical principles to address local, regional, and global environmental issues. Depending on their specialization, environmental engineers may work on any of the following projects throughout their careers:
This is only a small sample of the work available to an environmental engineer. Engineers in this industry may expect to work on any project aimed at protecting the environment and developing ways to make life better for the global community.
Like many other engineering fields, environmental engineering includes a variety of specializations, which are described in detail below. Anyone interested in a career in environmental engineering will benefit from exploring the full range of options available in this dynamic field:
Coastal engineering involves aspects of civil engineering and focuses on risks and demands posed by any development along a coastline. A coastal engineer may work for a public or federal agency or a private organization and may be responsible for monitoring the effects of wave activity, any detriment to coastal flora and fauna, and anything else related to the shore.
Old Dominion University offers an online graduate certificate in coastal engineering. This 12-credit certificate is provided through the Batten College of Engineering and Technology and can be earned by completing just four courses. They are an introduction to coastal engineering, dredging and beach engineering, coastal hydrodynamics and sediment processes, and the design of coastal structures. Classes completed for this certificate can be applied towards a Master of Science in Civil Engineering with a focus in Coastal Engineering should students pursue further education.
This environmental engineering specialty generally examines the methods involved in extracting various resources from the earth, including minerals, gasses, and oil. A geophysical engineer may find employment with a private oil company or mine and may help develop safer and more efficient extraction methods.
The College of Engineering at the University of Idaho offers an online master of science in geological engineering. Students in this program learn the construction and design of mining projects, how to mitigate geological hazards caused by humans, and how to utilize mineral and energy sources. This 30-semester credit hour program can be completed on-campus or through distance learning at a student’s own pace. To be eligible for admission, candidates must hold a bachelor’s degree in engineering or a related field.
Water resources engineering focuses on creating new equipment for managing water resources. A water resources engineer may work on projects related to wells, natural springs, and water treatment plants or associated facilities.
Students can complete an online master’s of environmental engineering specializing in environmental, water resources, and coastal engineering through North Carolina State University’s College of Engineering. Courses in water resource engineering help students understand surface waters, hydrodynamics, and the biological and chemical processes of water. In addition, there are core, elective, and technical class recommendations for students to achieve the most in-depth education. These classes include hydraulics of groundwater, engineering hydrology, and hydroclimatology.
Although related to coastal engineering, ocean engineering more specifically focuses on the ocean environment. As a result, it acts as a connecting piece between various other sciences, including marine biology and oceanography, among others.
The ocean and coastal engineering focus area for the master’s of environmental engineering at Johns Hopkins Whiting School of Engineering prepares graduates for work with the world’s oceans. Recommended classes for this specialization include marine geotechnical engineering, design of ocean structures, port & harbor engineering, and sustainable coastal engineering. Since this program is offered online, students can complete their coursework without relocating. Classes are offered both as live classes and recorded lectures. Johns Hopkins also offers graduate and post-master’s degrees in environmental engineering.
Ecological engineering is a relatively new field that emphasizes various ecosystems’ construction, design, and monitoring. One of the main goals of ecological engineering is to help the human population better integrate with its surrounding ecosystems.
Since this field is so new, there are currently no online degree programs in ecological engineering. However, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology offers free ecology classes through their OpenCourseWare project. These courses are at the graduate and undergraduate levels and include lectures, notes, assignments, and exams. In addition to classes in ecology, there are numerous other environmental engineering on-campus courses and programs available.
Environmental engineers may find employment with various public and private organizations. According to the BLS (2022), federal, state, and local governments and utility companies need environmental engineers to help comply with environmental regulations. For instance, environmental engineers may work for municipal governments, assisting in projects to improve a specific system or method within a town or city.
Private companies constructing alongside the coast or extracting oil or other natural resources from the ground might also employ environmental engineers as consultants. In addition, engineers may find employment within federal agencies looking to improve existing technology to monitor air or water quality.
Furthermore, environmental engineers may work either independently or on a team alongside other engineers within an organization. For example, those who obtain a master’s degree or are licensed or Board Certified Environmental Engineers might often serve as consultants or in managerial roles.
The day-to-day tasks of an environmental engineer depend entirely on the type of work and industry in which the individual is employed. For example, an engineer monitoring a system that treats water or processes waste or recycling may spend a large portion of time at the specific site alongside other professionals who maintain the system.
At other times, an environmental engineer responsible for the development of a coastline may spend time in a planning office with other team members who are working on the project. In addition, engineers who have completed a study on the efficiency of a new method of resource extraction may make presentations to others in the industry at seminars.
The following are typical responsibilities environmental engineers might encounter at a global engineer firm, paper and packaging firm, and defense technology company:
The responsibilities of environmental engineers are the backbone of urban and technological developments. Their ability to bridge the needs of humanity with respect for available natural resources is the foundation of making the world a better place for all.
Environmental engineers may work in an office alongside other team members at some point in their careers. In addition, many environmental engineers must travel to specific locations, including water treatment facilities or waste disposal plants, where they may monitor the systems and create reports or make recommendations. Engineers who have completed studies related to their industry may present this information to various groups or organizations.
For instance, the role of a coastal engineer of a state government may be to work on a project to help protect nearby structures from destruction and erosion. This engineer may spend time in an office or laboratory setting, designing and planning a model to implement, such as a dike or seawall.
Upon completion of the design, the environmental engineer may oversee its successful implementation on the shoreline. Subsequently, the engineer would likely be required to monitor the implemented structure, which may involve improving the existing structure, or replacing it altogether.
Those interested in a career in environmental engineering will most likely have the opportunity to work in an office and on-site locations. But, ultimately, environmental engineers may find themselves in positions to help change the world by ensuring a sustainable global community and planet.
According to the BLS (2022), there are 44,000 environmental engineers employed across the US. Furthermore, there will be an estimated 4 percent increase in jobs in this field between 2021 and 2031. This translates into 1,800 new jobs in the next decade. Demand for environmental engineers is primarily in engineering services, although consulting companies and government organizations employ many.
Wages for environmental engineers vary based on work experience, level of education completed, employer, and location. For example, those working for large private corporations in metropolitan areas tend to earn more than those employed by smaller companies or government agencies or who work in rural areas. The average salary for an environmental engineer is $100,220, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics (May 2021). The percentiles for wages are:
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