Attention to detail is integral to many careers, but it is especially important in the computer engineering field. These professionals investigate the minutiae, test tiny parts such as processors, and find bugs or glitches in computer software programs. Computer engineers must not only have an eye for detail when examining physical structures or lines of code, but they also should be patient and persistent when solving problems. Even though computer engineers may be focused on small computer parts or programming languages, technology is a scalable field meaning their efforts can be far-reaching and impactful across all industries.
A degree in computer engineering can lead to work that is very different from one organization to another. Computer engineering is hardly one-size-fits-all and career opportunities abound in the development of hardware or in writing software, such as applications. Personal interest and ambition also play a part, guiding people into more specific aspects of the field. Whatever path a computer engineer chooses to follow, they should expect plenty of research, design, and testing in their profession.
This guide offers a step-by-step plan for entering the field of computer engineering based on details provided by professional associations and the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS 2020), which gives information about expected education, skills, and certification. Read on to learn more about computer engineering careers, including details on credentialing, salaries, and job growth.
Computer engineers typically need a bachelor’s degree in computer engineering, computer science, or software engineering to be able to work in the field, according to the BLS (BLS, Sept. 2020). While some young programmers may bypass this step through extensive programming or building experience, it’s more common to get a degree.
Students considering the field may want to look for programs accredited through the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET). This accreditation assures students that the programs offer a quality education, and meet other requirements for graduate-level admissions, credentialing, or to be hired by some employers. ABET-accredited programs include both online and on-campus offerings at the bachelor’s and master’s degree levels.
Computer engineering programs offer an education that is helpful in finding a job and seeking one of the multivariate certifications available. Countless bachelor’s degree programs in computer engineering are available in the U.S. and accredited through ABET, but also are available in other related fields such as computer engineering technology or electrical and computer engineering. Students also may be able to find schools that offer a combined bachelor’s and master’s degree through five-year programs. Internship experiences may also be part of a computer engineering program to provide practical, hands-on experiences.
Admissions requirements for computer engineering programs vary from school to school, but there are some commonalities. Admissions officials examine a candidate’s high school grade point average (GPA), scores on achievement tests (e.g., SAT), and even a student’s involvement in extracurricular activities such as programming or computer-related clubs. An on-campus or phone interview could also be a requirement.
Examples of common admissions materials to computer engineering schools include:
Bachelor’s degree programs in computer engineering include courses specific to the field and classes in the sciences, such as physics. General education and core engineering classes make up the bulk of many computer engineering degrees, while engineering electives and/or empirical projects could be available a student’s senior year. Sample courses from bachelor’s degrees in computer engineering include:
Although a master’s degree in computer engineering is not required to enter the field, it can be helpful to anyone who wants to advance in the field or even pursue more niche work. According to CareerOneStop (2020), 25 percent of people in computer hardware engineering careers had a master’s degree. Like bachelor’s degrees, some master’s degree programs are available entirely online, particularly in computer-related specializations.
Not surprisingly, admissions requirements vary by institution. Some typical admission requirements to master’s degree programs in computer engineering include:
Students pursuing a master’s degree in computer engineering often spend the first year completing course requirements in engineering and the second pursuing specific areas of interest or even electives, often in computer science or electrical engineering. Concentrations may be available in a few, but not all, degree programs. Sample concentrations include:
Similar to the bachelor’s level, a master’s degree program may incorporate a capstone project in the final year. In some cases, a thesis could be an option as well. Classes found in master’s degree programs in computer engineering include:
Experience in computer engineering is important for numerous reasons. It can point professionals in a new direction of study in the field, leading to a discovery or advancement. It also can be important to anyone thinking about becoming licensed as a Professional Engineer (PE), although licensing requirements vary from state to state.
In fact, in January 2020 the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE)-USA announced the phase-out of the PE Exam in software engineering due to very few applicants. Instead, IEEE recommends that software engineers who can pass the Fundamentals in Engineering (FE) exam should be well-positioned to take the Computer Engineering PE exam which tests real-time computer system design.
If becoming a PE is important, experience is a necessity. In fact, at least four years of experience working under the guidance of other qualified engineers are required to be able to seek the PE designation.
A PE license is not necessary to work in the field, but may be valuable when it comes to finding better employment opportunities or working as a consultant. To illustrate this point, the National Society of Professional Engineers anyone interesting in starting his or her own firm may want to become a PE. If a person plans to work for a business or corporation throughout their lives, however, the PE license may not be as important.
According to IEEE-USA, the benefits to PE licensing include the ability to show that:
This commitment to public safety becomes even more important with computer systems that utilize real-time components, reported the IEEE-USA.
Computer engineers need to meet the following criteria to be able to become a licensed PE, according to IEEE-USA:
The PE exam is available for both computer engineering and software engineering professionals. It’s best to take the exam that aligns most with the applicant’s completed degree program. More details on these and other PE exams can be found on the National Council of Examiners for Engineering and Survey (NCEES).
Vendor or professional certifications can be important to a computer-engineering career as well. These certifications can demonstrate a commitment to excellence in the field, specific capabilities, and an ongoing interest in learning. Below is a list of certifications for those involved in computer hardware engineer or software development careers.
Prospective computer engineers may want to know about the average annual salaries earned by professionals and job growth for the field. Salaries for both computer hardware engineers and software developers are relatively generous, with mean pay reaching close to or above $100,000 in both occupations.
Here are salary and career-growth profiles for computer hardware engineers and software developers.
The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS, May 2019) reported that computer hardware engineers earned a mean annual salary of $123,030. The highest wages in the field were earned by people working in software publishers, followed by those in scientific research and development services.
United States (67,880 computer hardware engineers employed): $123,030 average annual salary
Also, data from PayScale (2020)—a site for self-reported salaries—suggests that computer hardware engineers with experience in Verilog, debugging, engineering design, and C++ may be able to earn more as a result of these skills.
Because more technological progress is now occurring with software than with hardware, positions for computer hardware engineers are expected to grow just 2 percent from 2019 to 2029, according to the BLS (2020). This is compared to an expected 4 percent average growth across all occupations in the U.S. That said, job prospects could be best for those with a graduate-level degree and some knowledge of computer software.
The BLS (May 2019) reported that software developers specializing in applications earned a mean annual salary of $111,620. People working in computer systems design and related services followed by software publishers earned the highest wages in the field.
United States (1,406,870 software developers [applications] employed): $111,620 average annual salary
While the BLS classifies computer software developers working in systems software and applications in the same category, the growth data for these two occupations varies slightly.
The BLS (2020) predicted that job openings for software developers would swell 22 percent between 2019 and 2029, a rate that’s much faster than the national average for all occupations (4 percent) and higher than computer hardware engineers (2 percent) in the same period.
Also, data from PayScale (2020) suggests that software engineers with experience using Java, SQL, or C# programming language tend to earn slightly more than other software developers.
While there are differences in the top-employers and rate of career growth for software developers, careers in computer occupations are still a wise investment and growing at 11 percent which equates to an estimated increase of 316,000 software developers between 2019 and 2029 (BLS 2020).
Finally, students who pursue computer engineering degrees may be interested in joining a professional association or organization, which can provide job leads, conferences, training, networking, research in the field, and other resources. There may be a fee to join an organization, but often this is less expensive when done as a student. The following organizations could be beneficial to prospective computer engineers:
Traditional forms of education are still important, but they can’t keep up with the rapid pace of cybersecurity. As soon as one form of threat is neutralized, innumerable others are developed. That’s why employers and employees are both increasingly turning to the more nimble world of professional certifications.
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